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/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+ */
* Copyright (c) International Business Machines Corp., 2006
* Authors: Artem Bityutskiy (Битюцкий Артём)
* Thomas Gleixner
* Frank Haverkamp
* Oliver Lohmann
* Andreas Arnez
* This file defines the layout of UBI headers and all the other UBI on-flash
* data structures.
#ifndef __UBI_MEDIA_H__
#define __UBI_MEDIA_H__
#include <asm/byteorder.h>
/* The version of UBI images supported by this implementation */
#define UBI_VERSION 1
/* The highest erase counter value supported by this implementation */
/* The initial CRC32 value used when calculating CRC checksums */
/* Erase counter header magic number (ASCII "UBI#") */
#define UBI_EC_HDR_MAGIC 0x55424923
/* Volume identifier header magic number (ASCII "UBI!") */
#define UBI_VID_HDR_MAGIC 0x55424921
* Volume type constants used in the volume identifier header.
* @UBI_VID_DYNAMIC: dynamic volume
* @UBI_VID_STATIC: static volume
enum {
* Volume flags used in the volume table record.
* @UBI_VTBL_AUTORESIZE_FLG: auto-resize this volume
* %UBI_VTBL_AUTORESIZE_FLG flag can be set only for one volume in the volume
* table. UBI automatically re-sizes the volume which has this flag and makes
* the volume to be of largest possible size. This means that if after the
* initialization UBI finds out that there are available physical eraseblocks
* present on the device, it automatically appends all of them to the volume
* (the physical eraseblocks reserved for bad eraseblocks handling and other
* reserved physical eraseblocks are not taken). So, if there is a volume with
* the %UBI_VTBL_AUTORESIZE_FLG flag set, the amount of available logical
* eraseblocks will be zero after UBI is loaded, because all of them will be
* reserved for this volume. Note, the %UBI_VTBL_AUTORESIZE_FLG bit is cleared
* after the volume had been initialized.
* The auto-resize feature is useful for device production purposes. For
* example, different NAND flash chips may have different amount of initial bad
* eraseblocks, depending of particular chip instance. Manufacturers of NAND
* chips usually guarantee that the amount of initial bad eraseblocks does not
* exceed certain percent, e.g. 2%. When one creates an UBI image which will be
* flashed to the end devices in production, he does not know the exact amount
* of good physical eraseblocks the NAND chip on the device will have, but this
* number is required to calculate the volume sized and put them to the volume
* table of the UBI image. In this case, one of the volumes (e.g., the one
* which will store the root file system) is marked as "auto-resizable", and
* UBI will adjust its size on the first boot if needed.
* Note, first UBI reserves some amount of physical eraseblocks for bad
* eraseblock handling, and then re-sizes the volume, not vice-versa. This
* means that the pool of reserved physical eraseblocks will always be present.
enum {
* Compatibility constants used by internal volumes.
* @UBI_COMPAT_DELETE: delete this internal volume before anything is written
* to the flash
* @UBI_COMPAT_RO: attach this device in read-only mode
* @UBI_COMPAT_PRESERVE: preserve this internal volume - do not touch its
* physical eraseblocks, don't allow the wear-leveling
* sub-system to move them
* @UBI_COMPAT_REJECT: reject this UBI image
enum {
/* Sizes of UBI headers */
#define UBI_EC_HDR_SIZE sizeof(struct ubi_ec_hdr)
#define UBI_VID_HDR_SIZE sizeof(struct ubi_vid_hdr)
/* Sizes of UBI headers without the ending CRC */
#define UBI_EC_HDR_SIZE_CRC (UBI_EC_HDR_SIZE - sizeof(__be32))
#define UBI_VID_HDR_SIZE_CRC (UBI_VID_HDR_SIZE - sizeof(__be32))
* struct ubi_ec_hdr - UBI erase counter header.
* @magic: erase counter header magic number (%UBI_EC_HDR_MAGIC)
* @version: version of UBI implementation which is supposed to accept this
* UBI image
* @padding1: reserved for future, zeroes
* @ec: the erase counter
* @vid_hdr_offset: where the VID header starts
* @data_offset: where the user data start
* @image_seq: image sequence number
* @padding2: reserved for future, zeroes
* @hdr_crc: erase counter header CRC checksum
* The erase counter header takes 64 bytes and has a plenty of unused space for
* future usage. The unused fields are zeroed. The @version field is used to
* indicate the version of UBI implementation which is supposed to be able to
* work with this UBI image. If @version is greater than the current UBI
* version, the image is rejected. This may be useful in future if something
* is changed radically. This field is duplicated in the volume identifier
* header.
* The @vid_hdr_offset and @data_offset fields contain the offset of the the
* volume identifier header and user data, relative to the beginning of the
* physical eraseblock. These values have to be the same for all physical
* eraseblocks.
* The @image_seq field is used to validate a UBI image that has been prepared
* for a UBI device. The @image_seq value can be any value, but it must be the
* same on all eraseblocks. UBI will ensure that all new erase counter headers
* also contain this value, and will check the value when attaching the flash.
* One way to make use of @image_seq is to increase its value by one every time
* an image is flashed over an existing image, then, if the flashing does not
* complete, UBI will detect the error when attaching the media.
struct ubi_ec_hdr {
__be32 magic;
__u8 version;
__u8 padding1[3];
__be64 ec; /* Warning: the current limit is 31-bit anyway! */
__be32 vid_hdr_offset;
__be32 data_offset;
__be32 image_seq;
__u8 padding2[32];
__be32 hdr_crc;
} __packed;
* struct ubi_vid_hdr - on-flash UBI volume identifier header.
* @magic: volume identifier header magic number (%UBI_VID_HDR_MAGIC)
* @version: UBI implementation version which is supposed to accept this UBI
* image (%UBI_VERSION)
* @vol_type: volume type (%UBI_VID_DYNAMIC or %UBI_VID_STATIC)
* @copy_flag: if this logical eraseblock was copied from another physical
* eraseblock (for wear-leveling reasons)
* @compat: compatibility of this volume (%0, %UBI_COMPAT_DELETE,
* @vol_id: ID of this volume
* @lnum: logical eraseblock number
* @padding1: reserved for future, zeroes
* @data_size: how many bytes of data this logical eraseblock contains
* @used_ebs: total number of used logical eraseblocks in this volume
* @data_pad: how many bytes at the end of this physical eraseblock are not
* used
* @data_crc: CRC checksum of the data stored in this logical eraseblock
* @padding2: reserved for future, zeroes
* @sqnum: sequence number
* @padding3: reserved for future, zeroes
* @hdr_crc: volume identifier header CRC checksum
* The @sqnum is the value of the global sequence counter at the time when this
* VID header was created. The global sequence counter is incremented each time
* UBI writes a new VID header to the flash, i.e. when it maps a logical
* eraseblock to a new physical eraseblock. The global sequence counter is an
* unsigned 64-bit integer and we assume it never overflows. The @sqnum
* (sequence number) is used to distinguish between older and newer versions of
* logical eraseblocks.
* There are 2 situations when there may be more than one physical eraseblock
* corresponding to the same logical eraseblock, i.e., having the same @vol_id
* and @lnum values in the volume identifier header. Suppose we have a logical
* eraseblock L and it is mapped to the physical eraseblock P.
* 1. Because UBI may erase physical eraseblocks asynchronously, the following
* situation is possible: L is asynchronously erased, so P is scheduled for
* erasure, then L is written to,i.e. mapped to another physical eraseblock P1,
* so P1 is written to, then an unclean reboot happens. Result - there are 2
* physical eraseblocks P and P1 corresponding to the same logical eraseblock
* L. But P1 has greater sequence number, so UBI picks P1 when it attaches the
* flash.
* 2. From time to time UBI moves logical eraseblocks to other physical
* eraseblocks for wear-leveling reasons. If, for example, UBI moves L from P
* to P1, and an unclean reboot happens before P is physically erased, there
* are two physical eraseblocks P and P1 corresponding to L and UBI has to
* select one of them when the flash is attached. The @sqnum field says which
* PEB is the original (obviously P will have lower @sqnum) and the copy. But
* it is not enough to select the physical eraseblock with the higher sequence
* number, because the unclean reboot could have happen in the middle of the
* copying process, so the data in P is corrupted. It is also not enough to
* just select the physical eraseblock with lower sequence number, because the
* data there may be old (consider a case if more data was added to P1 after
* the copying). Moreover, the unclean reboot may happen when the erasure of P
* was just started, so it result in unstable P, which is "mostly" OK, but
* still has unstable bits.
* UBI uses the @copy_flag field to indicate that this logical eraseblock is a
* copy. UBI also calculates data CRC when the data is moved and stores it at
* the @data_crc field of the copy (P1). So when UBI needs to pick one physical
* eraseblock of two (P or P1), the @copy_flag of the newer one (P1) is
* examined. If it is cleared, the situation* is simple and the newer one is
* picked. If it is set, the data CRC of the copy (P1) is examined. If the CRC
* checksum is correct, this physical eraseblock is selected (P1). Otherwise
* the older one (P) is selected.
* There are 2 sorts of volumes in UBI: user volumes and internal volumes.
* Internal volumes are not seen from outside and are used for various internal
* UBI purposes. In this implementation there is only one internal volume - the
* layout volume. Internal volumes are the main mechanism of UBI extensions.
* For example, in future one may introduce a journal internal volume. Internal
* volumes have their own reserved range of IDs.
* The @compat field is only used for internal volumes and contains the "degree
* of their compatibility". It is always zero for user volumes. This field
* provides a mechanism to introduce UBI extensions and to be still compatible
* with older UBI binaries. For example, if someone introduced a journal in
* future, he would probably use %UBI_COMPAT_DELETE compatibility for the
* journal volume. And in this case, older UBI binaries, which know nothing
* about the journal volume, would just delete this volume and work perfectly
* fine. This is similar to what Ext2fs does when it is fed by an Ext3fs image
* - it just ignores the Ext3fs journal.
* The @data_crc field contains the CRC checksum of the contents of the logical
* eraseblock if this is a static volume. In case of dynamic volumes, it does
* not contain the CRC checksum as a rule. The only exception is when the
* data of the physical eraseblock was moved by the wear-leveling sub-system,
* then the wear-leveling sub-system calculates the data CRC and stores it in
* the @data_crc field. And of course, the @copy_flag is %in this case.
* The @data_size field is used only for static volumes because UBI has to know
* how many bytes of data are stored in this eraseblock. For dynamic volumes,
* this field usually contains zero. The only exception is when the data of the
* physical eraseblock was moved to another physical eraseblock for
* wear-leveling reasons. In this case, UBI calculates CRC checksum of the
* contents and uses both @data_crc and @data_size fields. In this case, the
* @data_size field contains data size.
* The @used_ebs field is used only for static volumes and indicates how many
* eraseblocks the data of the volume takes. For dynamic volumes this field is
* not used and always contains zero.
* The @data_pad is calculated when volumes are created using the alignment
* parameter. So, effectively, the @data_pad field reduces the size of logical
* eraseblocks of this volume. This is very handy when one uses block-oriented
* software (say, cramfs) on top of the UBI volume.
struct ubi_vid_hdr {
__be32 magic;
__u8 version;
__u8 vol_type;
__u8 copy_flag;
__u8 compat;
__be32 vol_id;
__be32 lnum;
__u8 padding1[4];
__be32 data_size;
__be32 used_ebs;
__be32 data_pad;
__be32 data_crc;
__u8 padding2[4];
__be64 sqnum;
__u8 padding3[12];
__be32 hdr_crc;
} __packed;
/* Internal UBI volumes count */
* Starting ID of internal volumes: 0x7fffefff.
* There is reserved room for 4096 internal volumes.
/* The layout volume contains the volume table */
#define UBI_LAYOUT_VOLUME_NAME "layout volume"
/* The maximum number of volumes per one UBI device */
#define UBI_MAX_VOLUMES 128
/* The maximum volume name length */
#define UBI_VOL_NAME_MAX 127
/* Size of the volume table record */
#define UBI_VTBL_RECORD_SIZE sizeof(struct ubi_vtbl_record)
/* Size of the volume table record without the ending CRC */
* struct ubi_vtbl_record - a record in the volume table.
* @reserved_pebs: how many physical eraseblocks are reserved for this volume
* @alignment: volume alignment
* @data_pad: how many bytes are unused at the end of the each physical
* eraseblock to satisfy the requested alignment
* @vol_type: volume type (%UBI_DYNAMIC_VOLUME or %UBI_STATIC_VOLUME)
* @upd_marker: if volume update was started but not finished
* @name_len: volume name length
* @name: the volume name
* @flags: volume flags (%UBI_VTBL_AUTORESIZE_FLG)
* @padding: reserved, zeroes
* @crc: a CRC32 checksum of the record
* The volume table records are stored in the volume table, which is stored in
* the layout volume. The layout volume consists of 2 logical eraseblock, each
* of which contains a copy of the volume table (i.e., the volume table is
* duplicated). The volume table is an array of &struct ubi_vtbl_record
* objects indexed by the volume ID.
* If the size of the logical eraseblock is large enough to fit
* %UBI_MAX_VOLUMES records, the volume table contains %UBI_MAX_VOLUMES
* records. Otherwise, it contains as many records as it can fit (i.e., size of
* logical eraseblock divided by sizeof(struct ubi_vtbl_record)).
* The @upd_marker flag is used to implement volume update. It is set to %1
* before update and set to %0 after the update. So if the update operation was
* interrupted, UBI knows that the volume is corrupted.
* The @alignment field is specified when the volume is created and cannot be
* later changed. It may be useful, for example, when a block-oriented file
* system works on top of UBI. The @data_pad field is calculated using the
* logical eraseblock size and @alignment. The alignment must be multiple to the
* minimal flash I/O unit. If @alignment is 1, all the available space of
* the physical eraseblocks is used.
* Empty records contain all zeroes and the CRC checksum of those zeroes.
struct ubi_vtbl_record {
__be32 reserved_pebs;
__be32 alignment;
__be32 data_pad;
__u8 vol_type;
__u8 upd_marker;
__be16 name_len;
#ifndef __UBOOT__
__u8 name[UBI_VOL_NAME_MAX+1];
char name[UBI_VOL_NAME_MAX+1];
__u8 flags;
__u8 padding[23];
__be32 crc;
} __packed;
/* UBI fastmap on-flash data structures */
/* fastmap on-flash data structure format version */
#define UBI_FM_SB_MAGIC 0x7B11D69F
#define UBI_FM_HDR_MAGIC 0xD4B82EF7
#define UBI_FM_VHDR_MAGIC 0xFA370ED1
#define UBI_FM_POOL_MAGIC 0x67AF4D08
#define UBI_FM_EBA_MAGIC 0xf0c040a8
/* A fastmap supber block can be located between PEB 0 and
#define UBI_FM_MAX_START 64
/* A fastmap can use up to UBI_FM_MAX_BLOCKS PEBs */
#define UBI_FM_MAX_BLOCKS 32
/* 5% of the total number of PEBs have to be scanned while attaching
* from a fastmap.
* But the size of this pool is limited to be between UBI_FM_MIN_POOL_SIZE and
#define UBI_FM_MAX_POOL_SIZE 256
* struct ubi_fm_sb - UBI fastmap super block
* @magic: fastmap super block magic number (%UBI_FM_SB_MAGIC)
* @version: format version of this fastmap
* @data_crc: CRC over the fastmap data
* @used_blocks: number of PEBs used by this fastmap
* @block_loc: an array containing the location of all PEBs of the fastmap
* @block_ec: the erase counter of each used PEB
* @sqnum: highest sequence number value at the time while taking the fastmap
struct ubi_fm_sb {
__be32 magic;
__u8 version;
__u8 padding1[3];
__be32 data_crc;
__be32 used_blocks;
__be32 block_loc[UBI_FM_MAX_BLOCKS];
__be32 block_ec[UBI_FM_MAX_BLOCKS];
__be64 sqnum;
__u8 padding2[32];
} __packed;
* struct ubi_fm_hdr - header of the fastmap data set
* @magic: fastmap header magic number (%UBI_FM_HDR_MAGIC)
* @free_peb_count: number of free PEBs known by this fastmap
* @used_peb_count: number of used PEBs known by this fastmap
* @scrub_peb_count: number of to be scrubbed PEBs known by this fastmap
* @bad_peb_count: number of bad PEBs known by this fastmap
* @erase_peb_count: number of bad PEBs which have to be erased
* @vol_count: number of UBI volumes known by this fastmap
struct ubi_fm_hdr {
__be32 magic;
__be32 free_peb_count;
__be32 used_peb_count;
__be32 scrub_peb_count;
__be32 bad_peb_count;
__be32 erase_peb_count;
__be32 vol_count;
__u8 padding[4];
} __packed;
/* struct ubi_fm_hdr is followed by two struct ubi_fm_scan_pool */
* struct ubi_fm_scan_pool - Fastmap pool PEBs to be scanned while attaching
* @magic: pool magic numer (%UBI_FM_POOL_MAGIC)
* @size: current pool size
* @max_size: maximal pool size
* @pebs: an array containing the location of all PEBs in this pool
struct ubi_fm_scan_pool {
__be32 magic;
__be16 size;
__be16 max_size;
__be32 pebs[UBI_FM_MAX_POOL_SIZE];
__be32 padding[4];
} __packed;
/* ubi_fm_scan_pool is followed by nfree+nused struct ubi_fm_ec records */
* struct ubi_fm_ec - stores the erase counter of a PEB
* @pnum: PEB number
* @ec: ec of this PEB
struct ubi_fm_ec {
__be32 pnum;
__be32 ec;
} __packed;
* struct ubi_fm_volhdr - Fastmap volume header
* it identifies the start of an eba table
* @magic: Fastmap volume header magic number (%UBI_FM_VHDR_MAGIC)
* @vol_id: volume id of the fastmapped volume
* @vol_type: type of the fastmapped volume
* @data_pad: data_pad value of the fastmapped volume
* @used_ebs: number of used LEBs within this volume
* @last_eb_bytes: number of bytes used in the last LEB
struct ubi_fm_volhdr {
__be32 magic;
__be32 vol_id;
__u8 vol_type;
__u8 padding1[3];
__be32 data_pad;
__be32 used_ebs;
__be32 last_eb_bytes;
__u8 padding2[8];
} __packed;
/* struct ubi_fm_volhdr is followed by one struct ubi_fm_eba records */
* struct ubi_fm_eba - denotes an association beween a PEB and LEB
* @magic: EBA table magic number
* @reserved_pebs: number of table entries
* @pnum: PEB number of LEB (LEB is the index)
struct ubi_fm_eba {
__be32 magic;
__be32 reserved_pebs;
__be32 pnum[0];
} __packed;
#endif /* !__UBI_MEDIA_H__ */