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eBPF sample programs
This directory contains a test stubs, verifier test-suite and examples
for using eBPF. The examples use libbpf from tools/lib/bpf.
Build dependencies
Compiling requires having installed:
* clang >= version 3.4.0
* llvm >= version 3.7.1
Note that LLVM's tool 'llc' must support target 'bpf', list version
and supported targets with command: ``llc --version``
Kernel headers
There are usually dependencies to header files of the current kernel.
To avoid installing devel kernel headers system wide, as a normal
user, simply call::
make headers_install
This will creates a local "usr/include" directory in the git/build top
level directory, that the make system automatically pickup first.
For building the BPF samples, issue the below command from the kernel
top level directory::
make samples/bpf/
Do notice the "/" slash after the directory name.
It is also possible to call make from this directory. This will just
hide the the invocation of make as above with the appended "/".
Manually compiling LLVM with 'bpf' support
Since version 3.7.0, LLVM adds a proper LLVM backend target for the
BPF bytecode architecture.
By default llvm will build all non-experimental backends including bpf.
To generate a smaller llc binary one can use::
Quick sniplet for manually compiling LLVM and clang
(build dependencies are cmake and gcc-c++)::
$ git clone
$ cd llvm/tools
$ git clone --depth 1
$ cd ..; mkdir build; cd build
$ make -j $(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN)
It is also possible to point make to the newly compiled 'llc' or
'clang' command via redefining LLC or CLANG on the make command line::
make samples/bpf/ LLC=~/git/llvm/build/bin/llc CLANG=~/git/llvm/build/bin/clang
Cross compiling samples
In order to cross-compile, say for arm64 targets, export CROSS_COMPILE and ARCH
environment variables before calling make. This will direct make to build
samples for the cross target.
export ARCH=arm64
export CROSS_COMPILE="aarch64-linux-gnu-"
make samples/bpf/ LLC=~/git/llvm/build/bin/llc CLANG=~/git/llvm/build/bin/clang